Patent Document Translation
English to French Patent Document Translation Assignments and French to English Patent Document Translation Projects
Patent documents for which we can source a freelance translation resource for you would include examples of particular species of patents for inventions such as biological patents, business method patents, chemical patents and software patents. In fact, we can translate virtually any document related to Patent Law. We also handle documents from all languages and jurisdictions: industrial design rights are called design patents (they protect the visual design of objects that are not purely utilitarian) in some jurisdictions; plant breeders' rights (sometimes called plant patents); and, utility models or Gebrauchsmuster (sometimes called petty patents or innovation patents).
The types of documents we translate include: patent applications; patent appeal documents; articles of manufacture; business method documents; patent claims; cross-licensing agreements; defensive patent aggregation material; defensive publication information; defensive termination notifications; patent disclaimers; field-of-use and field-of-use limitation documentation; compulsory licenses/licensing; copyright on the content of patents; patent infringement; technical disclosure bulletins; inventors' notebooks; invention documents; methods documentation; originating applications; patent drawings; patent information news; etc.
We also translate all types of Intellectual Property Law documents such as those dealing with Primary Rights (Copyright; Patent; Trademark; Industrial design rights; Utility model; Geographical indication; Trade secret; Authors' rights; Related rights; and, Moral rights) and Sui Generis Rights (Database right; Mask work; Plant breeders' right; Supplementary protection certificate; Indigenous intellectual property; etc.)
Our role as a translation agency is to identify the required skill set, source the appropriate translation resource required, secure the services and coordinate the assignment.
In addition to English to or from French and English to or from Spanish Patent Document translation assignments, we can also assist you with the translation of the world's most popular languages into or from: Chinese; Arabic; German; Japanese; Portuguese; Russian; Korean; Italian; Hindi; and more...
Patent-Specific Language - Technical Considerations
Our translators, editors and proofreaders render well-written and clearly understandable texts. We place a high value on rendering a finished product that is faithful to the technical (i.e. patent-specific) as well as cultural nuances of the target language text, where such may apply.
French to English Patent Document Translation Assignments and French to Spanish Patent Document Translation Projects
We assist businesses in finding the best available French to English and French to Spanish patent document translation resources, including experienced freelance translators familiar with patent documentation legal jargon (actual current or former practionners in the field patents if appropriate or required).
In our experience, a target language native-speaker may not necessarily be the right freelance patent document translator for the job. (See: Common myths and misconceptions about translation.) Though a native-speaker may be preferable for certain translation assignments, having native language skills may not 'translate into' patent-specific jargon expertise (pun intended). An experienced linguist with strong Spanish and French or English and French language translation credentials, in-depth experience and professional credentials in patents, regardless of native language, may often prove to be a better choice.
In a nutshell, we use professional translators who have a solid mastery of the language used in the patent documentation (grammar, spelling, technical and cultural nuances) and a solid understanding of the subject matter.
Once we are confident that the appropriate freelance resources have been identified and certain that we can honour the project deadline, we submit a quote for the translation assignment.
If we cannot secure the appropriate resources, we will do our best to refer you to patent translation sources of information that we have confidence in.
Bi-Directional French Patent Document Translation Service for virtually any language pair
In addition to providing translation services from any language into the English language, we can also assist you with the translation of French language patent material into the world's most popular languages: French to Chinese; French to Arabic; French to German; French to Japanese; French to Portuguese; French to Russian; French to Korean; French to Italian; French to Hindi; to name but the most popular.... We can source translation expertise for virtually any language pair.
|Additional Technical Language Information Content in Patent Documents Translation |
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What is the Scope of Patent Documents Translation?
The range of patent legal concepts is extensive. Some of the patent concepts for which we can source freelante translation resources would include:
Given the diversity of patent documents, all of which have their own peculiar technical challenges (from a linguistic standpoint), sourcing competent translation resources is a task ideally suited to a translation agency that is accustomed to identifying the 'right' resource for a given assignment.
Source of quoted material (definitions): Wikipedia - Content available under GNU Free Documentation License
- Abandonment: The reply of an applicant to an office action must be made within a prescribed time limit. If no reply is received within the time period, the application may be considered, depending on the jurisdiction, as abandoned or deemed to be withdrawn, and, therefore, no longer pending.
- Annuity fee: A fee to be paid to maintain a patent or a patent application in force. Also called "maintenance fee" or "renewal fee".
- Application: An application for a patent, or patent application, is a request by a person or company to the competent authority (usually a patent office) to grant him a patent. By extension, a patent application also refers to the content of the document which that person or company filed to initiate the application process. This document usually contains a description of the invention and at least one claim used to define the sought scope of protection.
- Assignor estoppel: In United States patent law, an equitable estoppel barring a patent's seller (assignor) from attacking the patent's validity if he/she is found to have infringed that patent later.
- Auslegeschrift: In outdated German patent law, the second reading, or publication, of a patent application.
- Catch and release: The practice of a patent holding company buying a patent, offering a license to its members and then selling or donating the patent after a certain period of time.
- Chapter I: In the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT), "Chapter I" refers to the prosecution procedure when no demand under Article 31 PCT is made. The states selected under Chapter I by the applicant are called "designated States".
- Chapter II: In the PCT, "Chapter II" refers to the prosecution procedure when a demand under Article 31 PCT is made. An international preliminary examination is conducted in this case. The demand indicates the Contracting State or States in which the applicant intends to use the results of the international preliminary examination ("elected States").
- Claim: A noun phrase defining the extent of the protection conferred by a patent, or the extent of protection sought in a patent application.
- Clearance search and opinion: A search done on issued patents or on pending patent applications to determine if a product or process infringes any of the claims of the issued patents or pending patent applications. These searches and opinions are also called freedom-to-operate searches and opinions. See Patent infringement.
- Common general knowledge: A legal concept used notably when assessing whether an invention involves an inventive step and whether the disclosure of the invention is sufficiently clear and complete for a skilled person in the art to be able to carry out the invention. The common general knowledge "is the common knowledge in the field to which the invention relates." The information "must be generally known and generally regarded as a good basis for further action by the bulk of those engaged in that art before it becomes part of their common stock of knowledge relating to the art, and so part of the common general knowledge."
Regarding the inventive step assessment, "[if] information is part of the common general knowledge then it forms part of the stock of knowledge which will inform and guide the skilled person's approach to the problem from the outset. It may, for example, affect the steps it will be obvious for him to take, including the nature and extent of any literature search."
- Compulsory license: Using compulsory licenses, a government may force a patent proprietor to grant use to the state or others. Usually, the holder does receive some royalties, either set by law or determined through some form of arbitration.
- Continuing application: In United States law, an active patent application, prior to final action, may give rise to additional applications for additional claims carrying the priority date of the original application. With the move to published applications, this has become a common way of producing submarine patents.
- Contribution approach: Under European patent practice, a legal approach, now abandoned by the European Patent Office (EPO), for assessing whether an invention was patentable. The approach consisted in establishing whether the "contribution to the art" made by the invention was only in a field excluded from patentability by Article 52(2) and (3) EPC and, if so, the application could be refused. The EPO now applies the sometimes named "any hardware" or "any technical means" approach, notably formulated in EPO Board of Appeal decisions T 258/03 (Auction Method/Hitachi) and T 424/03 (Microsoft).
- Defensive publication: A publication intended to prevent the grant of a patent to a competitor by placing information in the public domain.
- Defensive termination: An implicit cross license where the licensor can terminate a patent license if the licensee turns around and sues the licensor for infringing a patent.
- Design around: The act of developing an alternative apparatus or method (which may in itself also be a patentable invention), that does not infringe upon an issued patent. Also used as a noun.
- Designated office: Under the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT), a national patent office of or acting for a State designated by the applicant under Chapter I of the PCT. See also "Chapter I" above.
- Disclaimer: An amendment consisting in limiting a claim by introducing a negative technical feature.
- Divisional patent application: A type of patent application which contains matter from a previously-filed application.
- Doctrine of equivalents: A legal rule that allows a court to hold a party liable for patent infringement even though the infringing device or process does not fall within the literal scope of a patent claim, but nevertheless is equivalent to the claimed invention.
- Double patenting: The protection of one single invention by two patents usually owned by the same proprietor.
- Elected office: Under the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT), a national patent office of or acting for a State elected by the applicant under Chapter II of the PCT. See also "Chapter II" above.
- Essential patent: A patent that is required to make a certain product is described as essential.
- Exhaustion of rights: A legal concept stating that rights in a product are exhausted by its sale.
- Examination support document: According to USPTO patent rules, the examination support document (ESD) is a document submitted by an applicant that lists prior art and identifies how the prior art applies to the claims in a pending patent application.
- Field-of-use limitation: A provision in a patent license that limits the scope of what the patent owner authorizes a manufacturing licensee (that is, a licensee that manufactures a patented product or performs a patented process) to do in relation to the patent, by specifying a defined field of permissible operation or specifying fields from which the licensee is excluded.
- Filing date: The filing date of a patent application is the date the patent application was filed in one or more patent offices, i.e. the date on which that application is legally accepted at the patent office. That date is typically the date on which the documents are deposited at the office, but may be later if there are defects in the documents. See also Priority right.
In the United States, if a patent application is mailed to the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) by Express Mail, Post Office to Addressee, then the date the application was deposited in the post office is the filing date.
- First to file: A legal concept in which the right to a patent for an invention is determined by the first person to file for a patent to protect that invention, cf. First to invent.
- First to invent: A legal concept in which the right to a patent for an invention is determined by the first person to make that invention, cf. First to file.
- Flash of genius: A test for patentability formerly used by the United States Federal Courts.
- Freedom-to-operate: A freedom-to-operate search is a search aimed at establishing whether a product or process is covered by patent rights, including patent and patent applications. If it does, commercially exploiting the product or process may lead to patent infringement. Freedom-to-operate analyses and opinions are aimed at determining the risk of patent infringement in that respect. These searches and opinions are also called clearance searches and opinions.
- Further medical use: See Second medical use.
- Gebrauchsmuster: A utility model in German and Austrian laws.
- Indirect infringement: In the United States, indirect infringement can occur by contributory infringement or induced infringement.
- Industrial applicability: A requirement of many patent systems, requiring that an invention be capable of industrial applicability in order for a patent to be granted for that invention.
- Information disclosure statement: In United States patent law, a submission of relevant background art or information to the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) by an applicant for a patent during patent prosecution.
- Interference proceeding: A type of proceedings, particularly at the USPTO, to decide who is entitled to the grant of a patent for an invention.
- Invalidity opinion: An invalidity opinion, also called "validity opinion", is a legal opinion provided by an attorney on how a court might rule on the validity of an issued patent. Invalidity opinions are often sought prior to patent litigation. See Patent infringement.
- Invention disclosure: A confidential document written by a scientist or engineer for use by a company's patent department, or by an external patent attorney, to determine whether patent protection should be sought for the described invention.
- Invention promotion firm: A firm providing services to inventors to help them develop or market their inventions.
- Inventive step: A patentability requirement according to which an invention should be sufficiently inventive, i.e. non-obvious, in order to be patented.
- Inventor: The actual devisor of an invention that is the subject of a patent.
- Kokai: A published, unexamined Japanese patent application.
- Kokoku: An examined and approved Japanese patent application.
- Letters patent: An old term for a patent, sometimes used in reference to a bound formal copy of a patent provided by the USPTO to the inventor upon a patent's issue.
- Machine-or-transformation test: A criterion in United States patent law, according to which a claimed process is patent-eligible (under § 101) if: (1) it is tied to a particular machine or apparatus, or (2) it transforms a particular article into a different state or thing. See also: in re Bilski.
- Maintenance fee: A fee to be paid to maintain a patent or a patent application in force. Also called "annuity fee" or "renewal fee".
- Markman hearing: A pre-trial hearing in the United States court system during which a judge hears testimony from both parties on the appropriate meanings of the relevant key words used in the claims of a patent, the infringement of which is alleged by the plaintiff.
- McKesson Reference: In United States patent law, an Information Disclosure Statement (IDS) reference to a communication with a patenting authority (e.g. office action response, or notice of allowance) in a related patent application. Based on the McKesson v. Bridge Medical decision where inequitable conduct was found where the applicant failed to notify the USPTO of such references. See also Inequitable conduct.
- Marlow Reference: In United States patent law, an IDS reference to a court document (e.g. memorandum opinion, or a court order) pertaining to a litigation involving an application or a related patent/application. Based on the Marlow Industries, Inc. v. Igloo Products Corp. decision where the court found that the applicant had a duty to notify the USPTO of such references. See also Inequitable conduct.
- Method: In United States patent law, a patent may notably claim a process or method. The claim gives right to exclude performance of the process or method, regardless of the equipment or technology used to do so.
- National phase: The prosecution phase wherein an international application filed under the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) becomes subject to examination at a national level. In the United States, the term national stage is used instead — see 35 U.S.C. § 371.
- Non-obviousness: A patentability requirement according to which an invention should be non-obvious in order to be patented.
- Novelty: A patentability requirement according to which an invention is not patentable if it was already known before the date of filing.
- Office action: A formal report from a Patent Office examiner to an inventor or attorney detailing which claims in a patent application were allowed for later issue (publication) in a patent and which claims were rejected. The examiner gives reasons for allowance or rejection.
- On-sale bar: A concept of US law in which the grant of a patent is prevented if the invention that is the subject of the patent application was on sale more than one year prior to the priority date.
- Opposition proceeding: Proceedings in which a third party opposes the grant of a patent in an attempt to prevent that grant, or have the patent revoked. Opposition proceedings may be pre- or post-grant.
- Patent ambush: A patent ambush occurs when a member of a standard-setting organization withholds information, during participation in development and setting a standard, about a patent that the member or the member's company owns, has pending, or intends to file, which is relevant to the standard, and subsequently the company asserts that a patent is infringed by use of the standard as adopted.
- Patent caveat: Formerly, in United States patent law, a legal document filed with the United States Patent Office. Caveats were discontinued in 1909. A caveat was like a patent application with a description of an invention and drawings, but without claims. It was an official notice of intention to file a patent application at a later date.
- Patent classification: Classification of patents in technological areas for convenient retrieval during prior art searches.
- Patent drawing: Technical drawing in a patent application, that illustrates the invention. It may be required by law to be in a particular form.
- Patent family: A group of patents related by a common priority claim.
- Patent flooding: Patenting every possible way of doing something.
- Patent infringement: Commercially exploiting an invention claimed in a patent without permission of the patentee.
- Patent misuse: In United States patent law, an affirmative defense used in patent litigation after the defendant has been found to have infringed a patent.
- Patent model: A miniature model that shows how an invention works.
- Patent pending: A term used to describe an invention for which a patent application is pending at a patent office. Used to mark products to alert people to the possible existence of a patent, thereby initiating the date from which damages may be claimed.
- Patent pool: A consortium of at least two companies agreeing to cross-license patents and other IP rights relating to a particular technology.
- Patent portfolio: A collection of patents owned by a single entity, such as an individual or corporation.
- Patent thicket: A dense web of overlapping intellectual property rights that a company must navigate through in order to commercialize new technology.
- Patent troll: Pejorative term for certain patent holders that use patent infringement litigation threats in a manner considered unduly aggressive or opportunistic.
- Patent watch: A process for monitoring newly issued patents on a periodic basis to see if any of these patents might be of interest.
- Patentability: A set of substantive requirements for a patent to be granted. An invention satisfying these requirements is said to be patentable.
- Patentability opinion: An opinion as to whether an invention might be patentable. Such an opinion may be established by a patent attorney to assist an inventor or company into deciding whether to file a patent application.
- Patentable subject matter: Patent systems exclude certain areas from the grant of patents. Material not so excluded is known as patentable subject matter.
- Pay-for-delay: A deal under which a company holding a patent on a drug pays a generic manufacturer to delay its launch of a cheap copy of the drug.
- Person having ordinary skill in the art: A hypothetical person having typical knowledge of a particular field or art, used such as to assess whether an invention is nonobvious or whether the specification of the patent enables one to practice what is claimed.
- Petition to make special: A United States patent law procedure that requests the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office to accelerate a patent's prosecution, based on a showing that certain conditions are met. For example, if the inventor is old or sick, or the field of invention is a favored area of science that significantly enriches people's lives, The U.S. PTO may allow such a petition.
- Piracy: Pejorative term. Generally refers to the willful infringement of a patent. May also be applied to the vigorous enforcement of a patent.
- Prior art: Material publicly available prior to the priority date of an application which may anticipate the subject of and prevent the grant of a patent.
- Priority right: The priority right is a right to claim priority from an earlier application. Claiming priority gives the later filed application a priority date of the filing date of the earlier application.
- Problem-solution approach: Under the case law and practice of the European Patent Office (EPO), an approach to assess whether an invention involves an inventive step. See Inventive step under the European Patent Convention (EPC).
- Prosecution history estoppel: In certain states, most notably the United States, actions during prosecution can estop a party from certain later actions or assertions.
- Provisional application: In United States patent law, a legal document filed in the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) that establishes an early filing date, but which does not mature into an issued patent unless the applicant files a regular patent application within one year.
- Provisional (patent) rights or provisional protection: The rights conferred to a published patent application, i.e. the rights conferred before the patent is granted. See also U.S. patent law, 35 USC 154(d). Under the European Patent Convention, "for the period of provisional protection, between the moment of publication of the patent application and the moment of the publication of the patent grant, Article 67 EPC requires Member States to ensure that the applicant can claim compensation reasonable in the circumstances from any person who has used the invention in their territory. Following publication of the mention of the patent grant, full compensation of any losses suffered may be claimed, depending also on whether the infringer knew or should have known that he or she was infringing."
- Reading a claim: The process of establishing patent infringement involves "reading" a claim onto the technology of interest. If all of the claim's elements are found in the technology, the claim is said to "read on" the technology; if a single element from the claim is missing from the technology, the claim does not literally read on the technology and the technology does not infringe the patent with respect to that claim. Also, the process of contesting or invalidating a patent can involve showing that the claim reads on prior art, i.e., the claim's elements are found in the prior art.
- Reasonable and Non Discriminatory Licensing: A type of licensing typically used during standardisation processes.
- Reduction to practice: In United States patent law, making or performing an invention (actual reduction to practice) or filing a patent application describing how to make and use an invention (constructive reduction to practice). Important for determining which party is "first to invent".
- Reexamination: The examination of a granted patent, which can result in the revocation of that patent.
- Regional phase: The prosecution phase wherein an international application filed under the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) becomes subject to examination at a regional level. There are four regional patent treaties: the European Patent Convention, the Eurasian Patent Convention, the Bangui Agreement (see African Intellectual Property Organization or OAPI), and the Harare Protocol (see African Regional Intellectual Property Organization or ARIPO). See also National phase.
- Research exemption: In some legislations, an exemption to the rights conferred by patents, pursuant to which performing research and tests for preparing regulatory approval does not constitute infringement for a limited term before the end of patent term.
- Restitutio in integrum: In the European Patent Convention, a means of redress following a loss of right due to the non-observance of a time limit in spite of all due care.
- Sandor Obviousness: In United States patent law, an obviousness rejection based on a single reference. Generally a case for an obviousness rejection requires the examiner to rely on 2 or more references. Sandor Obviousness stems from Ex Parte Sandor Nagy where the examiner relied on only a single reference to reject the claims at issue. Ultimately the case was remanded on appeal back to the examiner.
- Search report: A report established by a patent office, which mentions documents which may be taken into consideration in deciding whether the invention to which a patent application relates is patentable.
- Second medical use: The patenting of a particular medical use of a molecule (or more generally product or composition), wherein a first particular use of a molecule is already known and, therefore, wherein the novel and inventive aspect lies solely in the second use of the molecule. Also known as further medical use.
- Selection invention: An invention consisting in the selection of individual elements, sub-sets, or sub-ranges, within a larger, known set or range. A selection patent is a patent granted on a selection invention.
- Selection patent: See selection invention.
- Skilled person (in the art): See person having ordinary skill in the art.
- Small entity status: In United States patent law, a status allowing small businesses, independent inventors, nonprofit organizations to file a patent application and maintain an issued patent for a reduced fee.
- Software patent: A patent in the field of computer software. Some types of inventions in the field of software are legally considered non-patentable subject-matter, depending on the jurisdiction. See also software patents under the European Patent Convention, under TRIPs Agreement, under United Kingdom patent law, under United States patent law, computer programs and the Patent Cooperation Treaty, software patent debate.
- State of the art: A synonym for prior art.
- Submarine patent: A patent first published and granted long after the original application was filed.
- Sufficiency of disclosure: An important requirement to be met by a patent in order to be validly granted. According to this requirement, an invention must be described in the application or patent in a sufficiently clear and complete manner to enable the person skilled in the art to carry out the invention.
- Supplementary protection certificate: A sui generis right available for medicinal and plant protection products. The right comes into force after the corresponding patent expires and has a maximum life time of 5 years.
- Swear back of a reference: A procedure under US patent law whereby an inventor can get a patent even if the invention has become public before the patent application was filed.
- Technical character: A condition for an invention to be considered patentable under the case law and practice of the European Patent Office (EPO). Namely, an invention must notably have a technical character to be patentable. See Software patents under the European Patent Convention.
- Term of patent: The maximum period during which it can be maintained in force.
- Transfer: An operation by which ownership of a patent or patent application changes (for instance as a result of a financial transaction).
- Transitional phrase: In United States patent law, a phrase that links the preamble of a patent claim to the specific elements set forth in the claim which define what the invention itself actually is. The transitional phrase acts as a limitation on the claim, indicating whether a similar device, method, or composition infringes the patent if it contains more or fewer elements than the claim in the patent.
- Unity of invention: A requirement that a patent application can relate only to one invention (or to a group of inventions so linked as to form a single general inventive concept, see for instance Unity of invention under the European Patent Convention).
- Utility: A patentability requirement mainly used to prevent the patenting of inoperative devices such as perpetual motion machines.
- Utility model: An intellectual property right which is very similar to the patent, but usually has a shorter term (often 6 or 10 years) and may have less stringent patentability requirements.
- Validity opinion: A validity opinion, also called "invalidity opinion", is a legal opinion provided by an attorney on how a court might rule on the validity of an issued patent. Validity opinions are often sought prior to patent litigation. See Patent infringement.
- X-Patent: Patent issued by the United States Patent and Trademark Office between July 1790 (when the first U.S. patent was issued) and July 1836.
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