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Accreditation: Accreditation is a process in which certification of competency, authority, or credibility is presented. Organizations that issue credentials or certify third parties against official standards are themselves formally accredited by accreditation bodies; hence they are sometimes known as "accredited certification bodies". The accreditation process ensures that their certification practices are acceptable, typically meaning that they are competent to test and certify third parties, behave ethically and employ suitable quality assurance.

Source: Wikipedia – Content available under GNU Free Documentation License

Accredited translator: In the US, the American Translators Association (ATA) has an accreditation program for its members and translators can become accredited. This program is now part and parcel of the ATA Certification Program. Similarly, in Canada, the CTTIC implements standard certification procedures that are adopted by a variety of provincial and regional translation bodies, e.g. the Association of Translators and Interpreters of Ontario (ATIO) has a certification program leading to the designation of Certified Translator that is based upon CTTIC standards.

Administering an Oath or Affirmation: The person(s) swearing an affidavit must appear before a Commissioner of oaths. The Commissioner will verify the identity of the person, satisfy herself of the genuineness of the signature, and will administer an oath or solemn affirmation. The Commissioner does not certify that the statement being made is true but only certifies that an oath has been administered properly.

Source: University of Waterloo

Affidavit (French - Spanish): An affidavit is a formal sworn statement of facts, signed by the author, who is called the affiant (in US Law, a person who makes an affidavit) or deponent, and witnessed as to the authenticity of the affiant's signature by a taker of oaths, such as a notary public or commissioner of oaths. The name is Medieval Latin for he has declared upon oath. An affidavit is a type of verified statement or showing, or in other words, it contains a verification, meaning it is under oath or penalty of perjury, and this serves as evidence to its veracity and is required for court proceedings.

Source: Wikipedia – Content available under GNU Free Documentation License

Affirmation: In law, an affirmation is a solemn declaration allowed to those who conscientiously object to taking an oath. An affirmation has exactly the same legal effect as an oath, but is usually taken to avoid the religious implications of an oath. In some jurisdictions, it may only be given if such a reason is provided.

Source: Wikipedia – Content available under GNU Free Documentation License

American Translators Association (ATA) — ATA Certification: The ATA is a professional association founded to advance the translation and interpreting professions and foster the professional development of individual translators and interpreters. Its 11,000 members in more than 90 countries include translators, interpreters, teachers, project managers, web and software developers, language company owners, hospitals, universities, and government agencies. Association membership is available to individuals (Active, Corresponding, Associate, Student) and organizations (Corporate, Institutional).

The ATA offers a certification exam to translators in 24 language combinations. Becoming ATA certified allows translators to document their abilities objectively in a specific language combination.

Source: American Translators Association

Apostille: Apostille is a French word which means a certification. It is commonly used in English to refer to the legalization of a document for international use under the terms of the 1961 Hague Convention Abolishing the Requirement of Legalisation for Foreign Public Documents. Documents which have been notarized by a notary public, and certain other documents, and then certified with a conformant apostille are accepted for legal use in all the nations that have signed the Hague Convention.

In states that are parties to the Hague Convention, apostilles are affixed by Competent Authorities designated by the government. A list of these authorities is maintained by the Hague Conference on Private International Law. Examples of designated authorities are embassies, ministries, courts or (local) governments. For example, in the United States, the Secretary of State of each state and his or her deputies are usually competent authorities. In the United Kingdom, all apostilles are issued by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office in London.

To be eligible for an apostille, a document must first be issued or certified by an officer recognised by the authority that will issue the apostille. For example, in the US state of Vermont, the Secretary of State maintains specimen signatures of all notaries public, so documents that have been notarised are eligible for apostilles. Likewise, courts in the Netherlands are eligible of placing an apostille on all municipal status documents directly. In some cases, intermediate certifications may be required in the country where the document originates before it will be eligible for an apostille. For example, in New York City, the Office of Vital Records (which issues, among other things, birth certificates) is not directly recognised by the New York Secretary of State. As a consequence, the signature of the City Clerk must be certified by the County Clerk of New York County to make the birth certificate eligible for an apostille.

The apostille does not give information regarding the quality of the document, but certifies the signature (and the capacity of who placed it) and correctness of the seal/stamp on the document which must be certified.
Note on Canada related to apostilles:
Canada is not a signatory to the Hague Apostille Convention (Abolishing the Requirement of Legalization for Foreign Public Documents). Therefore, it is not possible to obtain an Apostille for Canadian official documents. Canadian documents which must be recognized in a foreign country must therefore be authenticated and legalized.

The Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada (DFAIT) website describes the procedure by which to get documents legalized and authenticated when they need to be submitted to a Foreign jurisdiction. (See: Authentication of Documents). There is, among other topics, an information section on translated documents.

According to the DFAIT website, the authentication service is provided at no charge. However, the wait times may be significant. We recommend that interested parties read all of the information on the DFAIT website carefully.
Source: Wikipedia – Content available under GNU Free Documentation License

Attestation: The act of authenticating a document by observing its execution at the request of the party signing the document, and then signing it as a witness. To affirm to be true or genuine; specifically: to authenticate by signing as a witness.

Sources: and

Authentication of Documents: Authentication is the act of establishing or confirming something (or someone) as authentic, that is, that claims made by or about the subject are true ("authentification" is a French language variant of this word). This might involve confirming the identity of a person, tracing the origins of an artifact or ensuring that a document is what its holder claims it to be.

Source: Wikipedia – Content available under GNU Free Documentation License

Foreign Governments and organizations sometimes require documents be authenticated before they will accept them. In Canada, all criminal record checks, fingerprint/clearance certificates, and any documents originating from the RCMP, provincial or local police stations must first be notarized prior to authentication by a Canadian official.

Canadian Translators, Terminologists and Interpreters Council - Conseil des traducteurs, terminologues et interprètes du Canada (CTTIC) — CTTIC Certification Examinations: The CTTIC is generally recognized as the national body representing professional translators, interpreters and terminologists in Canada. One of CTTIC's main activities has been to implement standard certification procedures, in accordance with its objective to provide uniform standards for the [translation] profession and to ensure the competence of the members of the bodies it represents.

Source: CTTIC

Certificate: A certificate is an official document affirming some fact. For example, a birth certificate or death certificate testifies to basic facts regarding a person's birth or death. A certificate may also certify that a person has received specific education or has passed a test or series of tests depending on the certification.

Source: Wikipedia – Content available under GNU Free Documentation License

Certificate of authentication: Certificates of authentication formally authenticate legalized documents requested by foreign consulates and embassies. As an example, in Ontario (Canada), the Ministry of Government Services' Official Documents Services (ODS) authenticates notarized or commissioned:
  • birth, adoption, marriage or divorce certificates;
  • property ownership documents;
  • school, college, or university admission papers and transcripts;
  • business, commercial import-export documents and contracts dealing with incorporation, partnerships, product standards and distribution, fiscal matters, approval certificates for customs, etc.;
  • certain Ontario government official documents.
  • The authentication of seals, stamps and signatures by ODS validates the status of a Notary Public or Commissioner for taking Affidavits (Oaths) appointed in the Province of Ontario. Foreign consulates and embassies request ODS certificates of authentication in order to accept the validity of various documents.

    Source: Ministry of Government Services
    Note: A certificate of authentication is not to be confused with a Certificate of authenticity (COA) which is "a seal or small sticker on a proprietary computer program, t-shirt, jersey, or any other memorabilia item, especially in the world of computers and sports, which is designed to demonstrate that the item is authentic. Computer COAs have a licence number on them, which verifies that the program is a genuine, legal copy." Source: Wikipedia

    Certification [document certification]: In the context of a "certified translation", certification is a term commonly used to describe a document whose translation has been certified by an accredited or 'competent' translator (depending on the applicable context and/or jurisdiction).

    From a technical standpoint, document certification may refer to document authentication (i.e. certificate of authentication) or to the certification of copies of original documents (i.e. certified copy or certified true copy). Such 'certifications' are usually performed by a Notary Public.

    Certification [professional certification]: Certification refers to the confirmation of certain characteristics of an object, person, or organization. This confirmation is often, but not always, provided by some form of external review, education, or assessment. One of the most common types of certification in modern society is professional certification, where a person is certified as being able to competently complete a job or task, usually by the passing of an examination.

    Source: Wikipedia – Content available under GNU Free Documentation License

    Certified copy (Certified true copy): A certified copy is a copy (often a photocopy) of a document, certified to be a true copy by a person authorized by legislation to do so (for example a court clerk, solicitor or notary public).

    Source: Wikipedia – Content available under GNU Free Documentation License

    Certified document: Official document issued by a recognized authority as genuine or meeting a certain standard.


    Certified translation: In many provincial jurisdictions in Canada, a translator must be accredited (i.e. "certified") by an officially recognized translation body (such as the ATIO - Association of Translators and Interpreters of Ontario) to be able to officially render a "certified translation". The manner in which a document is certified by a translator may vary. However, in all instances, the documentation being certified usually comes with an attestation or declaration and must bear the name of the translator in block letters along with her/his signature, affiliation to the accrediting body and accredited translator registration number. Many certified translators have adopted the practice of applying an official seal (ink stamp or embossed seal of their affiliation) to the translation and/or accompanying declaration, though this is not a formal requirement.

    In the United States, any translator or any translation company representative, regardless of credentials, may provide a certification that in the words of the US Citizenship and Immigration Service is constituted of a "certification [that] must include a statement that the translator is competent to translate the document, and that the translation is true and accurate to the best of the translator's abilities."

    Certified translator in Canada: Translators must pass a certification examination that will attest to an individual's professional skills. All forms of certification include an Ethics component. The title of Certified Translator is protected by law in New Brunswick, Ontario, Quebec and British Columbia where ATIO, CTINB, OTTIAQ and STIBC have gained legal professional recognition by their provincial governments. The standards for the Canadian program of certification for translators is based upon standards developed and implemented by the CTTIC.

    Certified translator in the United States: The most concise, on-target definition of a "certified" translator or interpreter came from Pat Newman, a past president of ATA and long-time translation manager for a science and engineering laboratory: "One whose interpretation or translation competence has been tested and approved by a professional association or governmental body."

    Source: ATA Article

    Certified translator [credential] (CT): The American Translators Association offers a certification exam in language combinations to candidates who wish to become ATA-Certified Translators (CTs). Passing the exam and becoming ATA-Certified is an opportunity for individuals to demonstrate their professional competence and enhance their business image. Candidates who successfully pass this exam are entitled to use the designation CT after their names. For example: Jane Doe, CT

    Source: ATA Certification Policy

    Commissioner for taking oaths: A Commissioner of Oaths has the power to administer oaths required by legislation or regulation. In addition to a person authorized by the Minister of Justice (Ontario) to act as a commissioner of oaths. However, the Commissioner is not a Notary Public and cannot sign any documents which require the certification of a Notary Public.

    Declaration: An unsworn statement of a witness admissible in evidence under certain conditions.


    In some legal systems, a declaration is an alternative term for a sworn affidavit (see: Statutory Declaration).

    Source: Wikipedia – Content available under GNU Free Documentation License

    Interpretation [language]: Language interpretation is the facilitating of oral or sign-language communication, either simultaneously or consecutively, between users of different languages. The process is described by both the words interpreting and interpretation. Note: Translation is written, whereas interpreting is spoken. A distinction is made between translating — transferring, between languages, ideas that are expressed in writing (as done by a translator) — and interpreting, which is the transferring of ideas expressed orally or (as with sign language) by signing (as done by an interpreter).

    Source: Wikipedia – Content available under GNU Free Documentation License

    Machine translation (MT): Machine translation, sometimes referred to by the abbreviation MT, is a sub-field of computational linguistics that investigates the use of computer software to translate text or speech from one natural language to another. At its basic level, MT performs simple substitution of words in one natural language for words in another.

    Source: Wikipedia – Content available under GNU Free Documentation License

    Notarization: An act related to the witnessing and authentication of certain classes of documents by a Notary Public. Other Notary Public functions, such as take acknowledgments of deeds and other conveyances, protest notes and bills of exchange, provide notice of foreign drafts, prepare marine protests in cases of damage, provide exemplifications and notarial copies are acts known as notarization.

    Source: Wikipedia – Content available under GNU Free Documentation License

    Notarized copy: A notarized copy is a photocopy of an original document that has been certified by a notary public to be a true and accurate copy of the original document. A notarized copy is sometimes referred to as a certified copy.


    Notarized document: A document carrying the authenticated signature(s) of the person(s) authorized or required to sign it, and the signature of a notary public witnessing the signature(s), accompanied by an impression of his or her official notary seal. A notarized document is not necessarily a certified (i.e. official) document.


    Notarized translation: Notarized translation: A translation that is notarized is a translated document carrying the authenticated signature(s) of the translator(s) authorized or required to sign it, and the signature of a notary public witnessing the signature(s), accompanied by an impression of his or her official notary seal. A notarized translation is not necessarily a certified translation.

    NOTE: A Notary Public makes no representation as to the accuracy of the content of the translated document. It is usually falls to the translator to vouch for the accuracy of a translation by certifying that a translation (into its target language) is a true and correct representation of the source-text.

    Certifying, in this context, can be accomplished in a number of ways: a written declaration on letterhead supplied by a translator or translation agency; a sworn statement supplied by a competent translator or translation agency official; a written declaration supplied by a duly certified translator bearing his/her embossed seal (or ink stamp) and signature; or any number of variations on the preceding.

    Notary Public: A notary public (or notary or public notary) is a public officer constituted by law to serve the public in non-contentious matters usually concerned with estates, deeds, powers-of-attorney, and foreign and international business. A notary's main functions are to administer oaths and affirmations, take affidavits and statutory declarations, witness and authenticate the execution of certain classes of documents, among other things.

    Source: Wikipedia – Content available under GNU Free Documentation License

    Oath: An oath is either a statement of fact or a promise calling upon something or someone that the oath maker considers sacred, usually God, as a witness to the binding nature of the promise or the truth of the statement of fact.

    In law, oaths are made by a witness to a court of law before giving testimony and usually by a newly-appointed government officer to the people of a state before taking office. In both of those cases, though, an affirmation can be usually substituted. A written statement, if the author swears the statement is the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, is called an affidavit. The oath given to support an affidavit is frequently administered by a notary, who will certify the giving of the oath by affixing her or his seal to the document. Willfully delivering a false oath (or affirmation) is the crime of perjury.

    Source: Wikipedia – Content available under GNU Free Documentation License

    Official document: An official document is oftentimes in the form of a certificate but is also represented in many other formats. They are issued by institutions, organizations and public bodies to affirm some fact. Some examples would include: a birth certificate; a transcript of notes issued by a university; a sworn statement or affidavit; a driver's license; a passport; etc. Official documents are sometimes referred to as certified documents.

    Official translation: The expression 'Official Translation' is a catch-all label used by institutions and individuals to describe a translation that has some sort of formal or authoritative recognition. It is usually intended as a descriptor that excludes documents that are translated by individuals for their own account or who are not professional translators or not affiliated to a recognized translation body. Official translations may refer to certified and/or notarized translations, though this may oftentimes not be the case. As an example, one university application processing centre defines official translations as those done by one of the following: a consulate or embassy of the country that issued the document or translations verified by consulate or embassy of the country issuing the document; a translation service or agency; an immigrant/refugee association; or the issuing institution.

    On Dossier Certification: A CTTIC designation granted to language professionals who have had at least five years of professional practice.

    Original document: usually, but not necessarily, an official document bearing a signature and oftentimes stamped (ink stamp, embossed stamp or seal) that may be copied or reproduced. An original document may exist in more than one copy, where each document is marked as "Original" and all copies (i.e. original copies or copies of the original) being of equal legal force and effect.

    Quality assurance (QA): Quality assurance refers to a program for the systematic monitoring and evaluation of the various aspects of a project, service, or facility to ensure that standards of quality are being met. It is important to realize also that quality is determined by the program sponsor. QA cannot absolutely guarantee the production of quality products, unfortunately, but makes this more likely. In a translation context, QA involves the verification that the target language reflects as closely as possible the intended meaning of the source text. It may also include the verification of layout (formatting; dtp) and illustrations embedded within a text.

    Source: Wikipedia – Content available under GNU Free Documentation License

    Statutory Declaration: A statutory declaration is a legal document defined under the law of certain Commonwealth nations. It is similar to a statement made under oath, however, it is not sworn. Statutory declarations are commonly used to allow a person to affirm something to be true for the purposes of satisfying some legal requirement or regulation when no other evidence is available. They are thus similar to affidavits (which are made on oath). Depending on jurisdiction, statutory declarations can be used for:
  • Declarations of identity, nationality, marital status, etc. when documentary evidence is unavailable.
  • Declaring the intention to change one's name.
  • Affirming the provenance and nature of goods for export or import.
  • Statements of originality for patent applications.

  • Source: Wikipedia – Content available under GNU Free Documentation License

    Sworn statement: A sworn declaration (also called a sworn statement or a statement under penalty of perjury) is a document that recites facts pertinent to a legal proceeding. It is very similar to an affidavit, but unlike an affidavit, it is not witnessed and sealed by an official such as a notary public. Instead, the person making the declaration signs a separate endorsement paragraph at the end of the document, stating that the declaration is made under penalty of perjury.

    Source: Wikipedia – Content available under GNU Free Documentation License

    Translation [document]: Translation is the comprehension of the meaning of a text and the subsequent production of an equivalent text, likewise called a "translation," that communicates the same message in another language. The text that is translated is called the source text, and the language that it is translated into is called the target language. The product is sometimes called the target text. Note: Translation is written, whereas interpreting is spoken. A distinction is made between translating — transferring, between languages, ideas that are expressed in writing (as done by a translator) — and interpreting, which is the transferring of ideas expressed orally or (as with sign language) by signing (as done by an interpreter).

    Source: Wikipedia – Content available under GNU Free Documentation License

    Translation memory (TM): A translation memory, or TM, is a database that stores so-called "segments", which can be sentences or sentence-like units (headings, titles or elements in a list), that have been previously translated. A translation-memory system stores the words, phrases and paragraphs that have already been translated and aid human translators. The translation memory stores the source text and its corresponding translation in language pairs called "translation units".

    Source: Wikipedia – Content available under GNU Free Documentation License

    Call us or send us an e-mail to discuss your situation. Full privacy and absolute confidentiality.


    To secure a CERTIFIED TRANSLATION follow these steps:

    Step 1: Send your documents and information

    In order to provide you with a document translation quote we must be provided with an electronic copy (scanned version — ideally in colour) of the document(s) requiring translation to properly assess the scope of work involved (language pair, type of document, word count, file format, technical difficulty, language resource availability, etc.).

    Go to our Request a Quote page and attach the document(s) in MSWord (*.doc or *.docx); Adobe Acrobat (*.pdf); PowerPoint (*.ppt or *.pptx); MSExcel (*.xls or *.xlsx) formats, OR e-mail us a file (scan) of the document(s):( service[at-sign] or Fax: 613-271-2795). Be sure to include your full contact information (name, phone number, mailing address with zip code or postal code, e-mail address) and identify the language pair. We normally respond by e-mail within 24 hours of receiving a request.

    Step 2: Payment

    We will send you a firm quote along with a payment request via e-mail before we begin the translation. Please note that full payment is required in advance before we can proceed with a certified translation project. We will e-mail you an invoice once we are in receipt of an e-mail confirmation from you to proceed with the translation project. At that time we would require that you call us with your payment information: Our methods of payment are VISA, MC or e-mail money transfers through RBC, TD, Scotia bank, CIBC or BMO. Toll Free: 1-888-722-3515

    Step 3: Translation and Delivery

    The average turnaround time for certified translations is 3 to 4 business days plus courier delivery time (usually one business day (24 hours)).

    Our process for certified translations is to provide you with a draft of the translated document(s) via e-mail for your review and approval. Once you have approved the translation and we have received your confirmation via e-mail that we can print and certify the documents, the translator would then affix his/her stamp to the translated document(s), following which we would have the certified translation sent to you via courier. A courier service tracking number would be provided to you.

    Types of documents requiring translation certification:

    The types of documents can vary widely and may include: Birth Certificates; Marriage Certificates; Divorce Decree Papers; Death Certificates; Diplomas; Academic Transcripts and Certificates; Official Identity Documents (Birth Certificate, Driver's License, Passport Pages, Baptismal Certificates, etc.); Work Records; Pension Papers; Proof of Income Documentation and/or Tax Returns; Private Correspondence and References; Special Authorizations (Child Adoption Paperwork, Parental Consent to Travel for a Child who is a Minor); Legal Documents (Power of Attorney, Contracts, Agreements, etc.)

    Whatever the nature of the documents, they will be safe in our care. Full privacy and absolute confidentiality.

    Help Us, Help You!
    Please note: You MUST supply us with your document(s) in order to receive a detailed quote.
    If you do not have a document available for assessment, please refer to our translation rates for basic pricing information.
    Please provide information about the language pair
    (i.e., source and target languages: Spanish to English; Arabic to English; English to French; etc.).
    The ideal format for document submissions is in a format that we can edit:
    MSWord (*.doc or *.docx); Adobe Acrobat (*.pdf); PowerPoint (*.ppt or *.pptx); MSExcel (*.xls or *.xlsx).
    If you are seeking a quote for certified translation, please let us know where you are located (city).
    If you are submitting large files for our assessment (i.e. greater than 20MB), please contact us via e-mail for FTP upload service.
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